Passive Optical Networks (PON)
A passive optical network is a glass fiber network which does not need to use active components for signal distribution. Passive optical networks are installed for gigabit glass fiber connections in the area between the central office and subscriber terminal. They work as access networks to the worldwide data and communication network for subscribers. Passive optical networks are differentiated between those based on a point-to-point architecture, and those based on a point-to-multipoint architecture. The goal of the PON technology is to bring glass fibers as close as possible, ideally up to subscriber buildings and residences.
At the Central Office, the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) interfaces with internet, telephony and tv services. Data, voice and video are carried simultaneously from the OLT PON port to each subscriber Optical Network Unit (ONU). Between OLT and ONU, are placed optical splitters, which splits main cable feeder from the OLT PON port to 32 (or even 64) ports.